Made Tech Blog

Continuous Delivery: Feature Toggles

When practising Continuous Delivery, it’s important that your application is deployable at all times. This can introduce some challenges, especially when you have features that span multiple builds, or bug fixes that need to get into production quickly.

In this article, we’re going to look at some of the techniques that we use to keep our applications deployable. We’ll look at why branches (particularly long-lived ones) can be the kiss-of-death for a continuous integration project, why techniques like feature toggles are useful but should be used with caution, and why you should focus on actually delivering small incremental changes to production.

Decoupling deployment and release

I’m sure we’ve all run into this problem before: You’ve got a set of changes that have been in development for weeks. For whatever reason, they cannot be deployed through to production. Suddenly there is a small bug fix that is urgently required and which needs to be deployed right away. What do you do?

It is time to start looking at ways in which you can decouple the deployment and release of your code changes.

If you had used feature toggles and were able to enable/disable features, you could disable the offending feature in production and deploy your bug fix through your pipeline. Without this, you’re probably going to need to perform a revert, implement the bug fix and then deploy this through your pipeline, before re-applying the bug fix to master. This is risky, potentially complex, and the sort of thing you really should be trying to avoid.

Prevent long-lived branches

In this scenario, some people would advocate developing the feature in its own branch and merging this back into master once the feature is complete. We have found this creates an additional set of challenges and goes against many of the principles of Continuous Integration (where you should be integrating into a master branch multiple times per day).

Branches create merge nightmares

If you’ve ever tried to merge a long-lived branch, then you probably know how difficult complex merges can become. You may have experienced that sinking feeling when confronted with hundreds of merge conflicts needing to be addressed. The time and cognitive effort required to handle the merge, plus the risk that some important changes might get missed, makes manual merges something we think should be avoided.

Feature branches and pull requests

The one type of branch that we would use is a very short-lived feature branch, as part of a pull request type workflow. My colleague Fareed has written an article about this and how we use these, and explains some of the techniques that we try to use to avoid merge difficulties.

Feature Toggles

The basic idea behind them is that you have a configuration system that allows you to toggle features on or off depending on some factors, such as environment, user profile or market. The running application then uses these toggles to decide whether or not to show the feature.

The actual implementation can take many forms. At its simplest, you will have a static configuration file within your application, which you deploy to production for the toggled changes to take effect. Some companies use more complex feature toggling systems, to allow runtime feature toggling via web interfaces or for toggling features within a canary build or quality assurance environment.

There are obviously a number of benefits to feature toggles, such as the ability to gradually roll out new features to users, proper decoupling of the deployment and release of code, and the huge benefits around keeping your continuous delivery process working.

Branching in code vs. branching in source control

One of the big criticisms of feature toggles is that they can introduce unnecessary code branching into your application. You are effectively moving the branches a level down, so out of version control and into your application.You’re effectively putting features into conditionals and therefore increasing the cyclomatic complexity of your application.

This code branching needs to be managed or you are fairly quickly going to start accruing technical debt. Jim Bird wrote an interesting article on this and described some techniques that he recommends using to prevent the accrual of too much debt in your application.

As a general rule, the quicker you can remove a feature toggle, the better. Toggles should be a short-term solution and not code that remains within your application for years to come.

Added test complexity

Another area in which you need to consider the impact of feature toggles, is within your test suite. There is a significant overhead to testing all toggle combinations, and frankly, it can be difficult to justify the impact this has on your test suite performance. Martin Fowler recommends having tests that cover:

  • All the toggles on that are expected to be on in the next release
  • All toggles on

We believe this is a sensible default, but it is also important that you consider the best approach for your application. If you are dealing in high-stakes software, like the team at Knight Capital Group then it may be worth accepting this performance hit.

Small incremental releases

Feature toggles are great, but before introducing them, we believe you should first try and break features down into small incremental chunks, which are releasable. By doing this, you’re minimising risk and more quickly realising value from your development effort.


As a developer, it’s your responsibility to manage application complexity. We would recommend you try and adopt a ‘small and incremental’ mindset as your default course-of-action, as this has the lowest complexity overhead.

Only when this becomes impossible to achieve should you look towards feature toggles (or any other technique), as they add complexity and ideally you want to minimise this as much as possible.

About the Author

Rory MacDonald

Rory MacDonald

Founder and Chief Executive Officer at Made Tech

Rory founded Made Tech in 2008 and has led the business in delivering organic and profitable growth ever since. They have over 20 years’ experience working in technology services organisations, across both the public and private sectors. In their role as CEO, Rory is responsible for setting the strategic direction of Made Tech and for overseeing profitable growth.