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Why be defensive about programming?

Programming style is often categorised by language or architecture, but the code style also can differ a lot within the same kind of architecture. Defensive programming is derived from the notion that very few things can be trusted when running a program, and adding more checks help to improve the stability of it.

It’s a clear defence against Murphy’s famous law that whatever can go wrong will go wrong. Defensive programming, as with most things, is not always black or white; the code style can be defensive in some critical parts and have fewer checks in other parts.

Let’s stop discussing theory for now and have a look at some common defensive patterns.

Null checks

The most common trait of defensive programming is to add null checks for just about everything. Here is a small example in Javascript:

 if (product
     && product.groups
     && product.groups.length
     && product.groups[0]
     && typeof product.groups[0].id === 'number'
     && product.groups[0].name) {
      // do something with the product group

I’m sure this code looks familiar to you in one way or another! The conventional wisdom here is basically that we should check everything because it’s difficult to know what to expect.

Here are some of the things that were probably going on in your head when you wrote that code:

  • What if the product is not formed properly?
  • What if the group on the product does not exist?
  • How will the code behave if another kind of object is passed? (Welcome to Javascript!)

These are all valid reasons to write the code above, but unknown scenarios still need to be dealt with. Maybe the product itself is simply invalid and if the code does not crash, you would never know about it.

Consider the following product being sent to this method :

    "name": "Red Carpet",
    "Groups": [

Here we can see that this particular product lacks a proper “groups” property and instead has a “Groups” property with a capital G. This error was introduced by another system, and will likely never be discovered and raised properly. The user probably just won’t see any group associated in the interface and these data errors might never be fixed.

Checks which are always true

Sometimes, we just want to be sure that everything is in order and the world still works as it should, so we add checks directly inside the class methods. Here is another example in JavaScript :

User.prototype.getGroup() {
  'use strict';
  // this should never happen...

  if (this !== null && typeof this !== 'undefined') {

  return null;

This is a terrible example, but it illustrates my point and finding similar examples in real life is not unheard of. What is the point of checking for the ‘this’ keyword here ? It’s obviously going to be defined there since the function should be called with the context from the object itself. Take the following code: // this useless call only works in strict mode

If someone is trying to call your code like that, what is even the point of trying to check anything? Since the code is not called with a User object, nothing is going to work in any of the User calls, whatever checks are in place.

Main issues with defensive programming


Maintaining code when every function starts with a ten line null check on every object is not an easy task. Every time an object changes, the code needs to be updated everywhere on every method. Because of all the checks, even if some part of the code is not updated, nobody will know about it until it’s too late.

Because errors are hidden and not being raised properly, it becomes difficult to know if the software is working as intended. Good testing and test driven development are the keys to building reliable software, though the advantages of proper testing cannot be fully explored in the context of this article. Unit tests are exploiting the fact that the program will raise errors if a problem occurs to cancel the tests. In some Unit tests, it’s difficult to make the difference between “no data returned” or “no data returned because the data is invalid”. Proper error tracebacks are also difficult to get since no errors are actually raised, debugging becomes then a harder task where every piece of code need to be checked.


Defensive programming makes it much harder to read the actual logic of the code. The checks themselves are taking a lot of space on every part of the program and it might become complicated to figure out what goal the programmer had in mind when writing the function. Readability is one of the main requirements for building reliable software. As a side effect, adding a lot of checks makes it more difficult for other team members to dig into the code to figure out how the code works.


Defensive programming is far from a new concept; the C standard library is full of NULL checks, overflow and memory checks on almost every function. While this concept can be useful at a lower level to detect major errors, preventing the program to crash can sometimes only mean allowing the program to continue to malfunction, which can lead to incorrect results.

About the Author

Avatar for Alex Minnette

Software Engineer at Made Tech